Extra belly fat (visceral obesity) causes endothelial dysfunction, which impairs blood vessel lining function. This malfunction can cause vascular deficits and cardiovascular disorders.
Inflammatory Substances: Excess belly fat, especially visceral fat, releases adipokines due to metabolic activity. These inflammatory chemicals cause chronic low-grade inflammation in blood vessels and elsewhere.
Insulin Resistance: Visceral obesity is typically linked to insulin resistance, a condition where cells become less insulin-responsive.
Oxidative Stress: Belly fat can cause oxidative stress, a condition caused by an imbalance between free radical production and the body's ability to counteract them.
Adipokines and Endothelial Dysfunction: Adipose tissue hormones regulate vascular function. Belly fat adipokines can cause endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and vasoconstriction.
Reduced Nitric Oxide Production: Endothelial cells create NO, a vital chemical that regulates blood flow and dilates blood arteries. Endothelial dysfunction reduces NO bioavailability, causing vasoconstriction and blood vessel malfunction.
Blood Pressure Dysregulation: Impaired endothelial function can cause blood pressure dysregulation. The endothelium maintains vascular tone, and malfunction can cause hypertension.
Reduced Vasodilation: Healthy endothelial function promotes blood vessel widening. Endothelial dysfunction reduces vasodilation, raising blood pressure and reducing blood flow.
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